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06-14-2011, 10:56 AM
Ibnul-Qayyim - A Brief Biography


Tuesday, 05 June 2007

A short biography showing the tremendous virtue and status, of the great Scholar of Islaam, the psychologist of Ahlus-Sunnah, Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah.

And if there were no virtues of Shaykh Taqiyyud-Deen [Ibn Taymiyyah], except for his famous student Shaykh Shamsud-Deen Ibnul-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah - the author of many works, which both his opponents and supporters benefited from - then this would be a sufficient indication of his [i.e. Ibn Taymiyyah's] great position.

He is the Imaam, the haafidh (preserver of hadeeth), the Scholar of tafseer (Qur‘aanic exegesis), usool (fundamentals of jurisprudence and law) and Fiqh (jurisprudence), Aboo ’Abdullaah Shamsud-Deen Muhammad Ibn Abee Bakr - better known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (or Ibnul-Qayyim).


He was born into a noble and knowledgeable family on the seventth of Safar in the year 691H in the village of Zar‘, near Damascus, Syria. From an early age he set about acquiring knowledge of the Islaamic sciences from the Scholars of his time. Describing his desire for knowledge, al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab said in Dhayl Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah (4/449): “He had an intense love for knowledge and for books, publications and writings.” Likewise, Ibn Katheer said in al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (14/235): “He acquired from such books what others could not acquire, and he developed a deep understanding of the books of the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and of the khalaf (those who came after the Salaf).”


They include Shihaab an-Naablusee and Qaadee Taqiyyud-Deen Ibn Sulaymaan, from whom he studied hadeeth; Shaykh Safiyyud-Deen al-Hindee and Shaykh Ismaa’eel Ibn Muhammad al-Harraanee, from whom he studied fiqh and usool; and also his father; from whom he learnt faraa‘id (laws of inheritance). However, the most notable of his shaykhs was Shaykhul-lslaam Ibn Taymiyyah, whom he accompanied and studied under for sixteen years. Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer said in al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (14/234): “He attained great proficiency in many branches of knowledge; particularly knowledge of tafseer, hadeeth, and usool. When Shaykh Taqiyyud-Deen Ibn Taymiyyah returned from Egypt in the year 712H, he stayed with the Shaykh until he died; learning a great deal of knowledge from him, along with the knowledge that he had already occupied himself in attaining. So he became a single Scholar in many branches of knowledge.”


Many of his students and contemporaries have borne witness to his excellent character and his manners of worship. Al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab said about him in Dhayl Tabaqaatul- Hanaabilah (4/450): “He - rahimahullaah - was constant in worship and performing tahajjud (the night Prayer), reaching the limits in lengthening his Salaah (Prayer) and devotion. He was constantly in a state of dhikr (remembrance of Allaah) and had an intense love for Allaah. He also had a deep love for turning to Allaah in repentance, humbling himself to Him with a deep sense of humility and helplessness. He would throw himself at the doors of Divine obedience and servitude. Indeed, I have not seen the likes of him with regards to such matters.”

Ibn Katheer - rahimahullaah - said in al-Bidaayah (14/234): “He was constant in humbly entreating and calling upon his Lord. He recited well and had fine manners. He had a great deal of love and did not harbour any envy or malice towards anyone, nor did he seek to harm or find fault with them. I was one of those who most often kept company with him and was one of the most beloved of people to him. I do not know of anyone in the world in this time, who is a greater worshipper than him. His Salaah (Prayer) used to be very lengthy, with prolonged rukoo’ (bowing) and sujood (prostrations). His colleagues would criticise him for this, yet he never retorted back, nor did he abandon this practice. May Allaah bestow His Mercy upon him.”


Amongst his most prominent students were: Ibn Katheer (d.774H), adh-Dhahabee (d.748H), Ibn Rajab (d.751H) and Ibn ’Abdul-Haadee (d.744H), as well as two of his sons, Ibraaheem and Sharafud-Deen ’Abdullaah. Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim - rahimahullaah - authored over sixty works. His books and writings are characterized by their touching address to the heart and soul, as well as their accuracy, precision, strength of argument and depth of research. His writings include: I’laamul-Muwaqqi’een, Turuqul-Hukmiyyah, Ighaathatul-Lahfaan, Tuhfatul-Mawlood, Ahkaam Ahlul-Dhimmah and al-Faroosiyyah, all in the field of fiqh and usool. In the field of hadeeth and seerah (biography) they include: Tahdheeb Sunan Abee Daawood, al-Manaarul-Muneef and Zaadul-Ma’aad. In the field of ’aqeedah (beliefs): Ijtimaa’: al-Juyyooshul-lslaamiyyah, as-Sawaa’iqul-Mursalah, Shifaa‘ul-’Aleel, Hadyal-Arwaah, al-Kaafiyatush-Shaafiyah and Kitaabur-Rooh. In the field of akhlaaq (morals) and tazkiyah (purification): Madaarijus-Saalikeen (a commentary on Manaazilus-Saa‘ireen), ad-Daa‘ wad-Dawaa‘: al-Jawaabul-Kaafee, al-Waabilus-Sayyib, al-Fawaa‘id, Risaalatut-Tabookiyyah, and ’Uddatus-Saabireen. Other books include: at-Tibyaan fee Aqsaamil-Qur‘aan, Badaa‘i’ul-Fawaa‘id, Jalaa‘ul-Afhaam and Miftaah Daarus-Sa’aadah.


Testaments about his comprehensive knowledge and firm adherence to the way of the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) have been given by a number of Scholars; from them are:

[1]: Al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab, who said in Dhayl Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah (4/448): “He had deep knowledge concerning tafseer and usoolud-deen (fundamentals of the Religion), reaching the highest degree concerning them both. Similar was the case in the field of hadeeth, with regards to understanding its meanings, subtleties and deducing rulings from them. Likewise was the case in the field of fiqh and its usool (principles), as well as the Arabic language. He did a great service to these sciences. He was also knowledgeable about kalaam (innovated speech and rhetorics), as well as the subtleties and details that occur in the speech of the people of tasawwuf (sufism).”

[2]: Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar, who said about him in ad-Durarul-Kaaminah (4/21): “He possessed a courageous spirit as well as vast and comprehensive knowledge. He had deep knowledge concerning the differences of opinions of the Scholars and about the ways of the Salaf.” Ibn Hajar - rahimahullaah - also said, in his commendation to ar-Raddul-Waafir (p. 68): “And if there were no virtues of Shaykh Taqiyyud-Deen (Ibn Taymiyyah), except for his famous student Shaykh Shamsud-Deen Ibnul-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah - the author of many works, which both his opponents and supporters benefited from - then this would be a sufficient indication of his (i.e. Ibn Taymiyyah’s) great position.”

[3]: Ibn Naasir ad-Dimishqee said about him in ar-Raddul-Waafir (p. 68): “He possessed knowledge of the (Islaamic) sciences, especially knowledge of tafseer and usool. He also said: Aboo Bakr Muhammad Ibnul-Muhib said, as found in his letter: I said in front of our Shaykh al-Mizzee: Is Ibnul-Qayyim at the same level as Ibn Khuzaymah: So he replied: He is in this time, what Ibn Khuzaymah was in his time.”

[4]: As-Suyootee said in Baghiyyatul-Wi’aat (1/62): “His books had no equal and he strove and traversed the path of the great Imaams in [the field of] tafseer, hadeeth, usool (fundamentals), furoo’ (branches) and the Arabic language.”

[5]: Mullaa ’Alee al-Qaaree, who said in al-Mirqaat (8/251): “It will be clear to whoever aspires to read the explanation of Manaazilus-Saa‘ireen, that they [i.e. both Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibnul-Qayyim] are from the kibaar (great ones) of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and from the awliyaa‘ of this Ummah.”


Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim passed away at the age of sixty, on the 13th night of Rajab, 751H. May Allaah shower His Mercy upon him.